Casting strength

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Casting strength (CS) is the primary offensive measure involved in the resolution of warding magic.

A player character's CS is determined by level, Spell Research, the relevant statistic bonus(es), and certain active spell effects.

Formula

CS = (Level × 3)
+ round(Primary Circle bonus)
+ ceiling(Secondary Circle A bonus)
+ ceiling(Secondary Circle B bonus)
+ round(Stat bonus)

round = standard ≥ .5 round up, < .5 round down.
ceiling = always round up

Primary Circle Bonus

The Primary Circle is the spell circle being cast (round normally). For example, a sorcerer casting Mana Disruption (702) would use ranks known in the Sorcerer Base circle to calculate the primary circle CS bonus. If the spell being cast is from a circle that the caster cannot train, for example, a sorcerer casting a Cleric Base spell from a blessed gem, then there is no primary circle bonus. All three trainable circles (sorcerer base, MnE and MnS) become secondary circles.

  • Ranks up to level = 1
  • Ranks 1-20 above level = 0.75
  • Ranks 21-60 above level = 0.5
  • Ranks 61-100 above level = 0.25
  • Ranks 101-? above level = 0.125

Primary Circle Bonus Example

A level 60 sorcerer with 80 sorcerer base ranks would have a primary circle bonus of 75 (60 + 15) when casting sorcerer base spells. A bonus of 1 for each spell rank up to level and an additional bonus of 15 (20 * .75) for the 20 ranks above level.

Secondary Circle Bonus

Secondary spell circles are any other circles the character knows that do not include the cast spell. For example, a sorcerer casting Mana Disruption (702) would use spell ranks known in the Minor Elemental and Minor Spiritual circles to calculate the secondary spell circle bonuses. If the sorcerer is casting Elemental Strike (415) then the secondary circle bonus calculations would use ranks known in the Sorcerer Base and Minor Spiritual circles. For professions such as rangers, bards, paladins, rogues and warriors that are limited to training in only two spell circles, there is just one secondary circle bonus.

  • Ranks up to 2/3 level = 0.333
  • Ranks above 2/3 level up to level = 0.1
  • Ranks above level = 0.05

Secondary Circle Bonus Example

A level 60 sorcerer with 30 minor elemental ranks and 20 minor spiritual ranks would have secondary circle bonuses of 10 (30 * .333) from MnE ranks and 7 (20 * .333) from MnS ranks when casting sorcerer base spells.

Stat Bonus

Stat bonus is the value appearing after the stat when the INFO command is entered.

CS Calculation Example

'Mentok' is a level 60 sorcerer. He has 80 Sorcerer Base ranks, 30 Minor Elemental ranks, and 20 Minor Spiritual ranks with a +30 Aura bonus and a +25 Wisdom bonus.

180 + 75 + 10 + 7 + 28 = 300
Mentok's sorcerer circle CS = 300

If he casts Elemental Targeting (425), he would gain an additional +14 CS to Sorcerer Base.

Items and spells to boost CS

CS enhancements to a specific sphere of magic have half effect for spells from related circles, and none for spells from opposing spheres. For example, Elemental Targeting provides half of its bonus to Sorcerer spells and no benefit to Spiritual spells.

Active Effect Bonus Sphere Notes
Mystic Focus (1711) (see below) +10 All available from heavy quartz orbs
Acuity flares +3 per tier All stacks with Ensorcell (735)
Symbol of Supremacy +1 per 2 ranks All only vs. undead; up to +13 for masters
Elemental Targeting (425) +25 Elemental up to +50 based on MnE ranks
Elemental focus potion +10 (minor)
+15 (lesser)
+25 (greater)
Elemental on next cast
Champion's Might (1612) +15 Spiritual up to +25 based on Paladin Base ranks
Spirit Slayer (240) +25 Spiritual on recast; up to +45 based on Spiritual Mana Control
Symbol of the Proselyte (340) +5 Spiritual on next cast; additional bonuses from Influence and Wisdom
Spiritual focus crystal +10 (minor)
+15 (lesser)
+25 (greater)
Spiritual on next cast
Mental focus crystal +10 (minor)
+15 (lesser)
+25 (greater)
Mental on next cast

Maximum CS

This section lists the maximum CS that can be reached by a level 100 character, assuming statistic bonuses of +25 and Elemental Targeting in effect (actual CS may be different for races with stat modifiers). The listed spell ranks are not necessarily the only configuration that achieves each result.

Bard

Bards have 202 ranks total, and can reach 517 Bard Base CS with:

  • 125 Bard Base, 77 Minor Elemental

Cleric

Clerics have 303 ranks total, and can reach 508 Cleric Base CS with:

  • 166 Cleric Base, 67 Minor Spiritual, 67 Major Spiritual

leaving 3 ranks that can be placed anywhere with no CS gain

Empath

Empaths have 303 ranks total, and can reach 508 Empath Base CS with:

  • 166 Empath Base, 67 Minor Spiritual, 67 Major Spiritual

leaving 3 ranks that can be placed anywhere with no CS gain

Sorcerer

Sorcerers have 303 ranks total, and can reach 532 Sorcerer Base CS with:

  • 162 Sorcerer Base, 73 Minor Elemental, 67 Minor Spiritual

leaving 1 rank that can be placed anywhere with no CS gain or

  • 159 Sorcerer Base, 77 Minor Elemental, 67 Minor Spiritual
  • 162 Sorcerer Base, 77 Minor Elemental, 64 Minor Spiritual
  • 166 Sorcerer Base, 73 Minor Elemental, 64 Minor Spiritual

Wizard

Wizards have 303 ranks total, and can reach 557 Major Elemental CS with:

  • 159 Major Elemental, 77 Minor Elemental, 67 Wizard

(In practice this configuration is uncommon. Unlike other professions, wizards rarely train purely for CS in a single spell circle and have many non-warding attack options.)

Magic Items and Scrolls

Activating a warding spell from a magic item or scroll will grant a CS bonus similar to spell ranks using the following formula:

CS Per AS/MIU Rank Limit
0.75 Up to level
0.5 Up to 2x level
0.33 Over 2x level

Ranger Base, Bard Base, and Paladin Base bonuses are halved in all cases.

While Mystic Focus is active, warding spells from the Elemental (MnE, MjE, Wizard, Bard) and Sorcerer spheres receive a further bonus based on the caster's Magic Item Use or Arcane Symbols skill, depending on whether the subsequent warding spell is cast from a magic item or a scroll. The Elemental/Sorcerer sphere bonus does not stack with Elemental Targeting (425).

External Links

To find the optimal spell rank training to maximize your CS in in a single circle you can use this calculator.